Artigos de Yoga

Avaliação do Usuário
PiorMelhor 

Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier

Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai

 

Ch?ndogya Upani?ad (Parte 2)
Ch?ndogya Upani?ad (Parte 3)
Ch?ndogya Upani?ad (Parte 4)

Om ! Let my limbs and speech, Prana, eyes, ears, vitality And all the senses grow in strength. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. May I never deny Brahman, nor Brahman deny me. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me, Who am devoted to the Atman; may they reside in me. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !


 

I-i-1: One should meditate on the syllable Om; the Udgitha, for one sings the Udgitha, beginning with Om. Of this, the explanation follows.
   I-i-2: The essence of all these beings is the earth. The essence of the earth is water. The essence of water is vegetation. The essence of vegetation is man. The essence of man is speech. The essence of speech is Rik. The essence of Rik is Saman. The essence of Saman is Udgitha.
   I-i-3: The syllable Om which is called Udgitha, is the quintessence of the essences, the supreme, deserving of the highest place and the eighth.
   I-i-4: Which one is Rik ? Which one is Saman ? Which one is Udgitha ? This is being considered now.
   I-i-5: Speech alone is Rik. Prana is Saman. The syllable Om is Udgitha. Speech and Prana, (the sources of) Rik and Saman, taken together form a couple.
   I-i-6: This couple is joined together in the syllable Om. Whenever a couple come together, they, indeed, fulfil each other’s desire.
   I-i-7: He who meditates upon this syllable as Udgitha knowing it thus (as the fulfiller), verily becomes a fulfiller of all the desirable ends.
   I-i-8: That verily is the syllable of assent, for whenever one assents to a thing, one says only ‘Om’. Assent alone is prosperity. He who meditates upon this syllable as Udgitha, knowing it thus (as endowed with the quality of prosperity), verily becomes one who increases all the desirable ends.
   I-i-9: With this does the threefold knowledge proceed; (because) with Om does one cause to listen; with Om does one recite; with Om does one sing aloud. For the worship of this syllable, with its own greatness and essence (the Vedic rites are performed).
   I-i-10: He who knows it thus and he who does not know – both perform actions with it. For knowledge and ignorance are different (in their results). Whatever is performed with knowledge, faith and meditation becomes more effective. Up to this truly is the explanation of (the greatness of) this syllable Om.
 

   I-ii-1: Once upon a time the gods and the demons, both descendants of Prajapati, were engaged in a fight. In that fight, the gods performed the rites of the Udgatir priests resolving, ‘With this we shall defeat them’.
   I-ii-2: Then they meditated on (the deity of) Prana connected with the nose, as Udgitha; the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore with it, the nose, one smells both the fragrant and the foul, for it has been pierced with evil.
   I-ii-3: Then they meditated on (the deity of) speech as Udgitha; the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore with it one speaks both truth and untruth, for it has been pierced with evil.
   I-ii-4: Then they meditated on (the deity of) eye as Udgitha; the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore with the eye one sees both the sightly and the unsightly, for it has been pierced with evil.
   I-ii-5: Then they meditated on (the deity of) ear as Udgitha; the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore with the ear one hears both the pleasant and the unpleasant, for it has been pierced with evil.
   I-ii-6: Then they meditated on (the deity of) mind as Udgitha; the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore with the mind one thinks both good and evil thoughts, for it has been pierced with evil.
   I-ii-7: Then they meditated on the Prana in the mouth as Udgitha. The demons came in clash with it and were destroyed, just as a lump of clay is destroyed, striking against a hard rock.
   I-ii-8: Thus it is that the Prana in the mouth has not been destroyed and is pure. Even as a lump of clay striking against a hard rock is destroyed, so will he be destroyed who wishes to do evil to one who knows this (the purity of Prana) or who (actually) injures that knower, for he is like a hard rock.
   I-ii-9: With this Prana in the mouth one discerns neither sweet smell nor foul, for it is free from sin. What one eats or drinks through this, even with that he maintains the other Pranas. And not finding this at the time of death, the Prana in the mouth and its dependants depart; and thus indeed one opens the mouth at the time of death.
   I-ii-10: Angiras meditated on that Prana as Udgitha. The sages consider this alone as Angirasa which is the essence of the limbs.
   I-ii-11: So Brihaspati meditated on Prana as Udgitha. The sages consider this alone as Brihaspati, for speech is great and this Prana is its lord.
   I-ii-12: So Ayasya meditated on Prana as Udgitha (identifying it with himself). The sages consider this alone as Ayasya for it goes out of the mouth.
   I-ii-13: Baka, the son of Dalbha, knew it thus. So he became the Udgatir-singer of the sacrificers dwelling in Naimisa. For their sake he sang to fulfil their desires.
   I-ii-14: He who knows it thus and meditates on the Udgitha as the syllable Om, looking upon it as Prana, certainly becomes the singer (and procurer) of the desired objects. This is the meditation with reference to the body.
 

I-iii-1: Now the meditation (on the Udgitha) with reference to the gods is described. One should meditate on him who gives heat (i.e. the sun) as Udgitha. Verily, when he rises, he sings aloud for the sake of all creatures. When he rises, he dispels darkness and fear. Verily, he who knows the sun as being endowed with these qualities, becomes the dispeller of darkness and (the consequent) fear.
   I-iii-2: This Prana in the mouth and that sun are the same. This is warm and that is warm. People call this as Svara (that is going) and that as Svara and Pratyasvara (that is going and coming). Therefore one should meditate on this Prana and that sun as Udgitha.
   I-iii-3: Now, verily one should meditate on Vyana as Udgitha. That which one breathes out is Prana and that which one breathes in is Apana. The junction of Prana and Apana is Vyana. That which is Vyana, even that is speech. Therefore, one utters speech while one neither breathes out nor breathes in.
   I-iii-4: That which is speech, even that is Rik. Therefore while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one pronounces the Rik. That which is Rik, even that is Saman. Therefore, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one sings the Saman. That which is Saman, even that is Udgitha. Therefore, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one sings the Udgitha.
   I-iii-5: Therefore whatever other actions require strength, such as the kindling of fire by friction, running a race towards a goal, the bending of a strong bow, are all performed, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. For this reason one should meditate on Vyana as Udgitha.
   I-iii-6: Now, one should meditate on the syllables of ‘Udgitha’ – namely, the syllables ‘ut’, ‘gi’ and ‘tha’. Prana is ‘ut’, because through Prana one arises (ut-tisthati). Speech is ‘gi’, because speech is called word (girah). Food is ‘tha’, because upon food all this is established (sthitam).
   I-iii-7: Heaven is ut, the sky is gi, the earth is tha. The sun is ut, the air gi, the fire, tha. The Sama-Veda is ut, the Yajur-Veda gi, the Rig-Veda tha. For him, speech yields the milk which is the benefit of speech. And he becomes rich in food; and an eater of food, who knows thus and meditates on the syllables of ‘Udgitha’, namely, ut, gi and tha.
   I-iii-8: Now follows the fulfilment of wishes: One should meditate on the objects contemplated. One should reflect upon Saman by means of which one proceeds to sing the Stotra.
   I-iii-9: One should reflect upon the Rik in which that Saman occurs, upon the sage by whom it is intuited and upon the deity to whom he proceeds to pray.
   I-iii-10: One should reflect upon the metre in which he proceeds to sing a Stotra; and he should reflect upon the hymn with which he proceeds to sing it.
   I-iii-11: He should reflect upon the quarter (of heaven) towards which he proceeds to sing a Stotra.
   I-iii-12: Lastly, having thought about himself, he should sing a Stotra reflecting upon his desired object avoiding all faults. Very quickly will be fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may sing the Stotra yea, desiring which he may sing the Stotra.
 

   I-iv-1: One should meditate on the syllable Om, the Udgitha, for one sings the Udgitha beginning with Om. Of this the explanation follows.
   I-iv-2: Verily, the gods, being afraid of death, took refuge in the three Vedas. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Because they covered themselves with these, the metrical hymns are called Chandas.
   I-iv-3: Just as a fisherman would see a fish in water, so did Death observe the gods in the (rites connected with) Rik, Saman and Yajus. They, too, knowing this, arose from the Rik, Saman and Yajus, and entered the Svara (the syllable Om).
   I-iv-4: Verily, when one learns the Rik, he loudly pronounces ‘Om’. It is the same with Saman and with Yajus. This syllable Om is indeed Svara; it again is immortality and fearlessness. Having entered into Svara (i.e. having meditated) the gods became immortal and fearless.
   I-iv-5: He who worships this syllable knowing it thus, enters this syllable, the Svara, which is immortality and fearlessness. And having entered it, he becomes immortal by that nectar, by which the gods became immortal.
 

   I-v-1: Now, that which is Udgitha is verily Pranava and that which is Pranava is Udgitha. The yonder sun is Udgitha and also Pranava, for he moves along pronouncing ‘Om’.
   I-v-2: ‘To him (the sun itself) I sung; therefore you are my only son’ thus said Kausitaki to his son. ‘Reflect upon the Udgitha as the rays of the sun, then surely, you will have many sons. This is the meditation with reference to the gods.
   I-v-3: Now (is the meditation) with reference to the body: One should meditate on him who is this Prana in the mouth, as Udgitha, for he moves along pronouncing ‘Om’.
   I-v-4: ‘To him (the Prana itself) did I sing; therefore you are my only son’, thus said Kausitaki to his son. "I shall get many sons", thinking thus, sing praise to the Udgitha as the manifold Pranas.’
   I-v-5: ‘Now, that which is Udgitha, is verily Pranava; and that which is Pranava, is Udgitha’, so one should think. As a result of it, even if he chants wrongly, he rectifies it by the act done from the seat of the Hotr priest.
 

   I-vi-1: The earth is Rik, the fire is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The earth is ‘sa’, the fire is ‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vi-2: The sky is Rik, the air is Sama. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The sky is ‘sa’, the air is ‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vi-3: Heaven is Rik, the sun is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. Heaven is ‘sa’, the sun is ‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vi-4: The stars are Rik, the moon is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The stars are ‘sa’, the moon is ‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vi-5: Now, the while light of the sun is Rik, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik.
   I-vi-6: Again, the white light of the sun is ‘sa’, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is ‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’. Now, that Person, effulgent as gold, who is seen within the sun, who is with golden beard and golden hair, is exceedingly effulgent even to the very tips of his nails.
   I-vi-7: His eyes are bright like a red lotus. His name is ‘ut’. He has risen above all evils. Verily, he who knows thus rises above all evils.
   I-vi-8: Rik and Saman are his two joints. Therefore he is Udgitha. Because the priest is the singer of this ‘ut’, he is the Udgitha. Moreover, he (this Person called ‘ut’) controls the worlds which are above that sun, as also the desires of the gods. This is with reference to the gods.
 

   I-vii-1: Now (is the meditation) with reference to the body: Speech is Rik, Prana is Sama. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. Speech is ‘sa’, Prana is ‘ama’ and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vii-2: The eye is Rik, the self (reflected in the eye) is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The eye is ‘sa’, the self is ‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vii-3: The ear is Rik, the mind is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The ear is ‘sa’, the mind is ‘ama’, and that makes "Sama’.
   I-vii-4: Now, the white light of the eye is Rik, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The white light of the eye is ‘sa’, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is ‘ama’ and that makes ‘Sama’.
   I-vii-5: Now, this person who is seen within the eye – he indeed is Rik, he is Saman, he is Uktha, he is Yajus, he is the Vedas. The form of this (person seen in the eye) is the same as the form of that (person seen in the sun). His joints are the same as those of the other; his name is the same as that of the other.
   I-vii-6: That (person in the eye) is the lord of all the worlds that are extended below, as also of the desired objects of men. So those who sing on the lute, sing of him alone and thereby become endowed with wealth.
   I-vii-7: Now he who sings the Saman after knowing the deity Udgitha thus, sings to both. Through that (person in the sun), he (that singer) gets the worlds beyond that sun and also the desired objects of gods.
   I-vii-8-9: Similarly, through this person in the eye, one gets the worlds that are extended below this person, and also the desired objects of men. For this reason, the Udgatir priest who knows thus should ask (the sacrificer): ‘What desire shall I obtain for you by singing the Saman ?’ For he alone becomes capable of obtaining desires by singing , who knowing thus sings the Saman – yea, sings the Saman.
 

   I-viii-1: In ancient times there were three proficient in Udgitha: Silaka the son of Salavat, Caikitayana of the Dalbhya family and Pravahana the son of Jivala. They said, ‘We are proficient in Udgitha. If you agree, let us enter on a discussion of Udgitha’.
   I-viii-2: ‘Let it be so’, saying this they sat down. Then Pravahana Jaivali said, ‘You two, revered sirs, speak first; and I shall listen to the words of two Brahmanas conversing’.
   I-viii-3: Then Silaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya, ‘If you permit, I shall question you’. ‘Question’, said he.
   I-viii-4: (Silaka asked), ‘What is the essence of Saman ?’ ‘The tune’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What is the essence of the tune ?’ ‘Prana’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What is the essence of Prana ?’ ‘Food’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What is the essence of food ?’ ‘Water’, said (Dalbhya).
   I-viii-5: ‘What is the essence of water ?’ ‘That (heavenly world)’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What is the essence of the world ?’ ‘One cannot carry (the Saman) beyond the heavenly world’, said Dalbhya; ‘we locate the Saman in the world of heaven, for Saman is praised as heaven’.
   I-viii-6: Then Silaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya: ‘O Dalbhya, your Saman is not indeed established. If someone one were to say, "Your head shall fall down", surely your head would fall down’.
   I-viii-7: (Dalbhya) ‘Will you permit me, sir, to learn this of you ?’ ‘Learn’, said (Silaka). ‘What is the essence of that (heavenly) world ?’ ‘This earth’, said (Silaka), ‘What is the essence of this earth ?’ ‘One cannot carry the Saman beyond this world as its support’, said Silaka; ‘we locate the Saman in this world as its support, for Saman is extolled as the earth’.
   I-viii-8: Pravahana Jaivali said to him, ‘O Salavatya, your Sama, really, has a further end. If someone now were to say, "Your head shall fall down", surely your head would fall down. (Salavatya) ‘Will you permit me, sir, to learn (this of you ?) ‘Learn’, said (Jaivali).
 

   I-ix-1: (Salavatya) ‘What is the essence of this world ?’ ‘Akasa’ said (Pravahana); ‘All these beings arise from Akasa alone and are finally dissolved into Akasa; because Akasa alone is greater than all these and Akasa is the support at all times.’
   I-ix-2: It is this Udgitha which is progressively higher and better. This again is endless. He who, knowing thus, meditates upon the progressively higher and better Udgitha, obtains progressively higher and better lives and wins progressively higher and better worlds.
   I-ix-3: Atidhanvan, the son of Sunaka, having taught this to Udarasandilya, said, ‘As long as among your descendants, this knowledge of the Udgitha continues, so long their life in this world will be progressively higher and better than ordinary lives.’
   I-ix-4: ‘And in that other world also their state will be similar’. He who knows and meditates thus – his life in this world surely becomes progressively higher and better, and so also his state in that other world – yea, in that other world.
 

   I-x-1: When the crops in the Kuru country had been destroyed by hailstorms, there lived Usasti, the son of Cakra with his young wife in a deplorable condition in the village of elephant-drivers.
   I-x-2: He begged food of an elephant-driver, while he was eating beans of an inferior quality. The driver said to him, ‘There is no other food than what is set before me’.
   I-x-3: ‘Give me some of them’, said Usasti. The driver gave them to him and said, ‘Here is drink at hand, if you please 1’ ‘Then I shall be drinking what is defiled’, said Usasti.
   I-x-4: ‘Are not these beans also defiled ?’ ‘Unless I ate them, I would surely not have survived’, said Usasti, ‘but drinking is at my option’.
   I-x-5: Usasti, after he had eaten, brought the remainder to his wife. She had already obtained her food by alms; so after receiving it she kept it by.
   I-x-6: Next morning while leaving the bed he said, ‘Alas, if I could get a little of food, I could earn a little wealth. There a king is going to institute a sacrifice; he would appoint me to all the priestly offices’.
   I-x-7: His wife said to him, ‘Well, lord, here are the beans (given by you).’ Having eaten them he went off to that sacrifice which was being performed.
   I-x-8: Seeing the singing priests seated there, he sat down near the singers in the place for singing the Stotras. And then he addressed the Prastotir priest.
   I-x-9: ‘O Prastotir, if you sing the Prastava without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastava, your head will fall down’.
   I-x-10: In the same manner he addressed the Udgatir priest, O Udgatir, if you sing the Udgitha without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, your head will fall down’.
   I-x-11: In the same manner he addressed the Pratihartir priest, ‘O Pratihartir, if you sing the Pratihara without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, your head will fall down’. Then they all sat down silently suspending their duties.
 

   I-xi-1: Then the principal of the sacrifice said to him, I should like to know you, revered sir, ‘I am Chakrayana Usasti’, said he.
   I-xi-2: He said, ‘I searched for you, revered sir, for all these priestly offices, but not finding you, sir, I have chosen others.’
   I-xi-3: ‘Revered sir, you yourself take up all the priestly offices for me’. ‘Be it so; then, let these same priests sing the hymns, being permitted by me. But you should give me as much wealth as you give them.’ ‘Very well’, said the sacrificer.
   I-xi-4: Then the Prastotir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me: ‘O Prastotir, if you sing the Prastava without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastava, your head will fall down". Which is that deity ?’
   I-xi-5: ‘Prana’, said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable beings merge in Prana (during dissolution) and rise out of Prana (during creation). This is the deity that belongs to the Prastava. If you sang the Prastava without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.’
   I-xi-6: Then the Udgatir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me: ‘O Udgatir, if you sing the Udgitha without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, your head will fall down". Which is that deity ?’
   I-xi-7: ‘The sun’, said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable sing the praise of the sun when he has come up. This is the deity that belongs to the Udgitha. If you sang the Udgitha without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.’
   I-xi-8: Then the Pratihartir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me: ‘O Pratihartir, if you sing the Pratihara without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, your head will fall down". Which is that deity ?’
   I-xi-9: ‘Food’, said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable beings live by partaking of food only. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihara. If you sang the Pratihara without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.’
 

   I-xii-1: Therefore next begins the Udgitha seen by the dogs. Once Dalbhya Baka, called also Maitreya Glava, went out (of the village) for the study of the Vedas.
   I-xii-2: Before him a white dog appeared and other dogs gathered around it and said, ‘Revered sir, please obtain food for us by singing; we are hungry.’
   I-xii-3: The white dog said to them, ‘Come to me over here tomorrow morning.’ (The sage named) Dalbhya Baka and Maitreya Glava kept watch there for them.
I-xii-4: Just as those who recite the Stotras singing the Bahispavamana hymn move along clasping one another’s hand, even so did the dogs move along. Then they sat down and began to pronounce ‘him’.
I-xii-5: ‘Om, let us eat ! Om, let us drink ! Om, may the (sun who is) god, Varuna, Prajapati and Savitir bring us food here. O Lord of food, bring food here, yea bring it, Om !’
 

I-xiii-1: Verily, this world is the syllable ‘hau’ (which is a Stobha), the air is the syllable ‘hai’, the moon is the syllable ‘atha’, the self is the syllable ‘iha’ and the fire is the syllable ‘I’.
I-xiii-2: The sun is the syllable ‘u’ (which is a Stobha), invocation is the syllable ‘e’ the Visvadevas are the syllable ‘auhoyi’, Prajapati is the syllable ‘him’, Prana is the Stobha ‘svara’, food is the Stobha ‘ya’ and Virat is the Stobha ‘vak’.
I-xiii-3: The undefinable and variable thirteenth Stobha is the syllable ‘hum’.
   I-xiii-4: For him, speech yields the milk, which is the benefit of speech; and he becomes richin food and an eater of food, who thus knows this sacred doctrine of the Samans – yea, knows the sacred doctrine of the Samans.
 


   II-i-1: Om. Surely, the meditation on the whole Saman is good. Anything that is good, people call as Saman, anything that is not good, as Asaman.
   II-i-2: Thus, when people say, ‘He approached him with Saman’, then they say only this: ‘He approached him with a good motive’. And when they say, ‘He approached him with Asaman’, then they say only this" ‘He approached him with an evil motive.’
   II-i-3: Again, people say: ‘Oh, this is Saman for us’, when it is something good; then they say only this: ‘Oh, this is good for us’. Again, they say, ‘Oh, this is Asaman for us’, when it is not good; then they say only this: ‘Oh, this is evil.’
   II-i-4: When one who knows it thus meditates on the Saman as good, all good qualities hasten towards him and serve him.
 

   II-ii-1: Among the worlds one should meditate upon the Saman as fivefold. The earth is the syllable him, the fire is Prasrava, the sky is Udgitha, the sun is Pratihara, and heaven is Nidhana. Thus this meditation pertains to the higher worlds.
   II-ii-2: Now, among the lower worlds. Heaven is the syllable him, the sun is Prastava, the sky is Udgitha the fire is Pratihara, and the earth is Nidhana.
   II-ii-3: The worlds in the ascending and descending lines belong to him. Who, knowing it thus (endowed with the quality of ‘good’) meditates on the fivefold Saman in the worlds.
 

II-iii-1-2: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as rain. The wind that precedes is the syllable him, the cloud that is formed is Prastava, the shower is Udgitha, lightning and thunder are Pratihara, and the ceasing is Nidhana. It rains for him – indeed, he causes rain – who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman as rain.
 

   II-iv-1: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in all the waters. When a cloud gathers, it is the syllable him. When it rains, it is Prastava. Those (waters) that flow to the east, are Udgitha. Those that flow to the west are Pratihara. The ocean is Nidhana.
   II-iv-2: He who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman in all the waters, does not drown in water and he becomes rich in water.
 

II-v-1: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the seasons: The spring is the syllable him, the summer is Prastava, the rainy season is Udgitha, the autumn is Pratihara, and the winter is Nidhana.
II-v-2: He, who knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman in the seasons, him the seasons serve and he becomes rich in seasons.
 

   II-vi-1: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the animals. The goats are the syllable him, the sheep are Prastava, the cows are Udgitha, the horses are Pratihara, and man is Nidhana.
   II-vi-2: He, who knowing it this, meditates on the fivefold Saman in animals, to him animals belong and he becomes rich in animals.
 

   II-vii-1: One should meditate on the progressively higher and better fivefold Saman as the senses; The organ of smell is the syllable him, the organ of speech is Prastava, the eye is Udgitha, the ear is Pratihara, and the mind is Nidhana. Verily, these are progressively higher and better.
   II-vii-2: He who knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman, progressively higher and better, in the senses, to him belong progressively higher and better lives and he wins ever higher and better worlds. So much for (the meditation on) the fivefold Saman.
 

   II-viii-1-2: Next is the meditation on the sevenfold Saman. One should meditate on the sevenfold Saman as speech. Whatsoever in speech is ‘hum’, that is the syllable him; whatever is ‘pra’, that is Prastava; whatever is ‘a’, that is Adi (the first); whatever is ‘ut’, that is Udgitha; whatever is ‘prati’, that is Pratihara; whetever is ‘upa’, that is Upadrava; and whatever is ‘ni’, that is Nidhana.
   II-viii-3: He who knowing it thus, meditates on the sevenfold (whole) Saman as speech, for him speech yields milk i.e. its appropriate benefit, and he becomes rich in food and an eater of food.

   II-ix-1: Next, one should meditate upon the sevenfold Saman as the yonder sun. He is the Saman because he is always the same. He is the Saman because he is the same to all, for each one thinks, ‘He faces me, he faces me.’
   II-ix-2: One should know that all these beings are dependent on him. What he is before rising, that is Himkara. On this, the animals are dependent. As they participate in the Himkara part of this Saman, do they utter him (before sunrise).
   II-ix-3: Then, the form of the sun when it has just risen, that is Prastava. On this, men are dependent. As they participate in the Prastava part of this Saman, so are they desirous of praise, direct and indirect.
   II-ix-4: And the form of the sun as it appears at the time of the assembling of its rays, that is Adi. On this, the birds are dependent. As they participate in the Adi part of this Saman, so do they hold themselves unsupported in the sky and fly about.
   II-ix-5: Next, the form of the sun that appears just at midday, that is Udgitha. On this, the gods are dependent. As they participate in the Udgitha part of this Saman, so are they the best among the offsprings of Prajapati.
   II-ix-6: Next, the form of the sun that appears just after midday and before (the latter part of) afternoon, that is Pratihara. On this, the foetuses are dependent. As they participate in the Pratihara part of this Saman, (so are they held up in the womb) and they do not fall down.
   II-ix-7: Next, the form of the sun that appears when it is past afternoon and before sunset, that is Upadrava. On this, the wild animals are dependent. As they participate in the Upadrava part of this Saman, so do they, when they see a man, run away to the forest, as to a place of safety.
   II-ix-8: Now, the form of the sun that appears just after sunset, that is Nidhana. On this, the fathers are dependent. As they participate in the Nidhana part of this Saman, so do people lay them aside.
 

   II-x-1: Now, verily, one should meditate on the sevenfold Saman, which has all its parts similar, and which leads beyond death. ‘Himkara, has three syllables; ‘Prastava’ has three syllables. So they are equal to each other.
   II-x-2: ‘Adi’ has two syllables; ‘Pratihara’ has four syllables. We take one syllable from Pratihara to Adi. So they are equal to each other.
   II-x-3: ‘Udgitha’ has three syllables; ‘Upadrava’ has four syllables. Three and three become equal. One syllable is left over; that really is tri-syllabic; so it also becomes equal.
   II-x-4: ‘Nidhana’ has three syllables, and this to is equal (to the others). These, indeed, are the twenty two syllables (of the sevenfold Saman).
   II-x-5-6: He who, knowing this Saman thus (as good), meditates on the sevenfold Saman, which has all its parts similar and which leads beyond death, reaches the sun (Death) by the number twenty-one; for, counting from this world the yonder sun is verily the twenty-first. With the remaining twenty-second syllable he conquers the world beyond the sun. That world is of the nature of bliss, and is free from misery. (That is), he obtains victory over the sun, and then a victory still higher becomes his, who meditates on the sevenfold Saman.
 

   II-xi-1: The mind is Himkara, speech is Prastava, the eye is Udgitha, the ear is Pratihara, and the Prana is Nidhana. This is the Gayatra Saman woven in (the Prana and) the senses.
   II-xi-2: He who thus knows this Gayatra Saman as woven in (the Prana and) the senses, becomes the possessor of perfect senses, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should be high-minded.
 

   II-xii-1: One rubs, that is Himkara. The smoke is produced, that is Prastava. It blazes, that is Udgitha. The embers are formed, that is Pratihara. It goes down, that is Nidhana. It is completely extinguished, that is Nidhana. This is the Rathantara Saman woven in fire.
   II-xii-2: He who thus knows this Rathantara Saman as woven in fire becomes radiant with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom, is endowed with good appetite and reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should neither sip nor spit facing the fire.
 

   II-xiii-1-2: The Vamadevya Saman is woven in a couple. He who thus knows this Vamadevya Saman as woven in a couple becomes one of the couple and procreates. He reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not despise any woman.
 

   II-xiv-1: The rising sun is Himkara; the risen sun is Prastava; the midday sun is Udgitha; the sun in the afternoon is Pratihara, and the setting sun is Nidhana. This is the Brihat Saman woven in the sun.
   II-xiv-2: He who thus knows this Brihat Saman as woven in the sun becomes refulgent and endowed with good appetite, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the burning sun.
 

   II-xv-1: The white clouds gather, that is Himkara. The (rain-bearing) cloud is formed, that is Prastava. It rains, that is Udgitha. It flashes and thunders, that is Pratihara. It ceases, that is Nidhana. This is the Vairupa Saman woven in the rain-cloud.
   II-xv-2: He who thus knows this Virupa Saman as woven in the rain-cloud acquires cattle of handsome and manifold forms, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the rain-cloud when it rains.
 

   II-xvi-1: The spring is Himkara, the summer is Prastava, the rainy season is Udgitha, the autumn is Pratihara, and the winter is Nidhana. This is the Vairaja Saman woven in the seasons.
   II-xvi-2: He who thus knows this Vairaja Saman as woven in the seasons shines with offspring, cattle and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the seasons.
 

   II-xvii-1: The earth is Himkara, the sky is Prastava, heaven is Udgitha, the quarters are Pratihara, and the ocean is Nidhana. This is the Sakvari Saman woven in the worlds.
   II-xvii-2: He who thus knows this Sakvari Saman woven in the worlds, becomes the possessor of the worlds, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the worlds.
 

   II-xviii-1: The goats are Himkara, the sheep are Prastava, the cows are Udgitha, the horses are Pratihara, and man is Nidhana. This is the Revati Saman woven in the animals.
   II-xviii-2: He who thus knows this Revati Saman woven in the animals, becomes the possessor of animals, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle, great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with animals.
 

   II-xix-1: The hair is Himkara, the skin is Prastava, the flesh is Udgitha, the bone is Pratihara, and the marrow is Nidhana. This is the Yajnayajniya Saman woven in the limbs of the body.
   II-xix-2: He who thus knows this Yajnayajniya Saman, woven in the limbs of the body, is endowed with all the limbs, and is not crippled in any limb; he reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not eat fish and meat for a year, or rather, he should not eat fish and meat at all.
 

   II-xx-1: Fire is Himkara, Air is Prastava, the Sun is Udgitha, the Stars are Pratihara, and the Moon is Nidhana. This is the Rajana Saman woven in the deities.
   II-xx-2: He who knows thus knows this Rajana Saman woven in the deities, abides in the same world or gets the same prosperity as these very deities or attains union with them; he reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the Brahmanas.
 

   II-xxi-1: The three Vedas are Himkara; the three worlds are Prastava; Fire, Air and the Sun are Udgitha; the Stars, the birds and the rays are Pratihara; the serpents, the celestial singers and the fathers are Nidhana. This is the collection of Samans woven in all things.
   II-xxi-2: Verily, he who thus knows this collection of Samans as woven in all things becomes the lord of all things.
   II-xxi-3: There is this verse about it: That which is fivefold in groups of three – there is nothing else greater or other than these (fifteen).
   II-xxi-4: He who knows that knows all. All the quarters bring offerings to him. His holy vow is that he should meditate ‘I am all’ – yea, that is his vow.
 

   II-xxii-1: ‘Of the Samans, I choose the one that bellows, as it were, and is good for cattle,’ thus (some think). This is the loud singing sacred to Agni, the undefined one to Prajapati, the defined one to Soma, the soft and smooth to Vayu, the smooth and strong to Indra, the heron-like to Brihaspati, and the ill-sounding to Varuna. Verily, one may practise all these, but should avoid the one sacred to Varuna.
   II-xxii-2: ‘May I obtain immortality for the gods by singing’, (thinking) thus one should sing. ‘May I obtain my singing, oblation for the fathers, hope for men, grass and water for animals, the heavenly world for the sacrificer, and food for myself’, -- thus reflecting in his mind on all these, he should sing the Stotra attentively.
   II-xxii-3: All vowels are the embodiments of Indra; all sibilants are the embodiments of Prajapati; all Sparsa consonants are the embodiments of Death. If anyone should reprove him for the pronunciation of his vowels, he should tell him, ‘I have taken my refuge in Indra; he will answer you.’
   II-xxii-4: And if some one should reprove him for sibilants he should tell him, ‘I have taken my refuge in Prajapati; he will crush you’. And if some one should reprove him for his Sparsa consonants, he should tell him, ‘I have taken my refuge in Death; he will burn you up.’
   II-xxii-5: All vowels should be pronounced sonant and strong, (with the thought), ‘May I impart strength to Indra (Prana)’. All sibilants should be pronounced, neither inarticulately, nor leaving out the elements of sound, but distinctly (with the thought), ‘May I give myself to Prajapati (Virat).’ All Sparsa consonants should be pronounced slowly, without mixing them with any other letter, (with the thought), ‘May I withdraw myself from Death.’
 

   II-xxiii-1: Three are the branches of religious duty. Sacrifice, study and gifts – these are the first. Austerity alone is the second, and the celibate student of sacred knowledge, who lives in the house of the teacher throughout his life mortifying his body in the teacher’s house, is the third. All these become possessors of meritorious worlds; but he who is established firmly in Brahman, attains immortality.
   II-xxiii-2: Prajapati brooded on the worlds. From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth the threefold Veda (as their essence). He brooded on this. From this, thus brooded upon, issued forth the syllables Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah.
   II-xxiii-3: He brooded on them. From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth (as their essence) the syllable Om (Brahman). Just as all the parts of the leaf, are permeated by the ribs of the leaf, so are all the words permeated by the syllable Om. Verily, the syllable Om is all this – yea, the syllable Om is verily all this.
 

   II-xxiv-1-2: The expounders of Brahman say, ‘The morning libation is of the Vasus, the midday libation is of the Rudras and the third libation is of the Adityas and of the Visvadevas. Where, the, is the world of the sacrificer ?’ How can he who does not know this, perform (sacrifices) ? It is only after knowing this that he should perform (sacrifices).
   II-xxiv-3-4: Before the commencement of the morning chant, the sacrificer sits down behind the Garhapatya fire, facing the north and sings the Saman sacred to the Vasus: ‘(O Fire), open the door of this world that we may see you for obtaining the kingdom.’
   II-xxiv-5-6: Then he offers the oblation (with the Mantra) – ‘Salutation to Fire, who dwells in the region of the earth. Obtain the region, for me the sacrificer. This region, indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. At the end of the duration of this life, I, the sacrificer, am willing to come here – Svaha.’ ‘Unbar the door of the region’, saying this he gets up. (As a result) the Vasus grant him (the region connected with) the morning libation.
   II-xxiv-7-8: Before the starting of the midday libation, the sacrificer sits down behind the Agnidhriya fire, facing the north, and sings the Saman sacred to the Rudras: ‘(O Fire), open the door of the region of the sky that we may see you for obtaining the sovereignty of the sky.’
   II-xxiv-9-10: Then he offers the oblation (with the Mantra): ‘Salutation to Vayu, who dwells in the region of the sky. Obtain this region for me, the sacrificer. This region, indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. At the end of the duration of this life, I, the sacrificer, am willing to go there – Svaha’. ‘Unbar the door of the region’, saying this he gets up. (As a result) the Rudras grant him (the region of the sky connected with) the midday libation.
   II-xxiv-11-13: Before beginning the third libation, the sacrificer sits down behind the Ahavaniya fire, facing the north, and sings the Saman sacred to the Adityas and the one sacred to the Visvadevas: ‘(O Fire), open the door of the region of heaven that we may see you for obtaining the sovereignty of heaven’. This is the Saman sacred to the Adityas. Next is the one sacred to the Visvadevas; ‘(O Fire), open the door of the region of heaven that we may see you for obtaining the supreme sovereignty.’
   II-xxiv-14-15: Then the sacrificer offers the oblation (with the Mantra): ‘Salutation to the Adityas and to the Visvadevas, the inhabitants of the region of heaven. Obtain the region of heaven for me, the sacrificer. This region, indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. At the end of the duration of this life, I, the sacrificer, am willing to go there – Svaha’. ‘Unbar the door of the region’, saying this, he gets up.
   II-xxiv-16: The Adityas and the Visvadevas grant him (the region appropriate to) the third libation. He alone knows the real character of the sacrifice, who knows thus.
 

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